Stop Surrogacy Now. Stop agli uteri in affitto. Il manifesto firmato da personalità di diversi orientamenti etnici, culturali, religiosi (fra i quali femministe, madri che hanno avuto figli con maternità surrogata, esponenti LGBT, attivisti di ONG, medici, filosofi)

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Riprendiamo sul nostro sito una nostra traduzione non ufficiale del manifesto Stop Surrogacy Now firmato da personalità di diversi orientamenti etnici, culturali, religiosi. Restiamo a disposizione per l’immediata rimozione se la sua presenza sul nostro sito non fosse gradita a qualcuno degli aventi diritto. Per approfondimenti, vedi le sotto-sezioni Famiglia, affettività e sessualità, omosessualità e gender e Le nuove schiavitù nella sezione Carità, giustizia e annunzio.

Il Centro culturale Gli scritti (15/5/2015)

VERSIONE NON UFFICIALE ITALIANA (a cura de Gli scritti)

DICHIARAZIONE: CAMPAGNA per fermare immediatamente  la MATERNITA’ SURROGATA

Siamo donne e uomini di diversa origine etnica, religiosa, culturale, socio-economica provenienti da tutte le regioni del mondo. Insieme vogliamo qui esprimere la nostra preoccupazione per le donne e i bambini sfruttati attraverso contratti per la gestazione tramite madri surrogate ("uteri in affitto").

Noi tutti siamo consapevoli della forza del desiderio di diventare genitori che è naturale e universale. Tuttavia, come nel caso della maggior parte dei desideri, devono essere posti dei limiti. I diritti umani ci forniscono un punto di riferimento significativo per tutti quelli che vogliono identificare tali limiti e determinarne le conseguenze concrete. Noi crediamo che la maternità surrogata debba essere vietato in quanto comporta una violazione dei diritti umani delle donne e dei bambini.

La maternità surrogata è spesso basata sullo sfruttamento delle donne più povere. In molti casi, i poveri sono costretti a vendere e i ricchi possono permettersi di acquistare. Tali operazioni ingiuste comportano un assenso da parte di donne malamente o talvolta per niente informate, bassi compensi, coercizione, mancato monitoraggio medico e gravi rischi per la salute a breve e a lungo termine, per le donne che accettano la maternità surrogata.

Il processo medico di "gestazione per mezzo di altri" comporta rischi per la madre surrogata, per le giovani donne che vendono i loro ovuli e per i bambini nati con le tecniche di procreazione medicalmente assistita. Tra i rischi per le donne si possono ricordare: la Sindrome da iper-stimolazione ovarica (OHSS), la torsione ovarica, le cisti ovariche, una sofferenza pelvica cronica, una menopausa precoce, una perdita di fertilità, un possibile tumore del sistema riproduttivo, coagulazione del sangue, insufficienza renale, arresto cardiaco e, in alcuni casi, morte. Le donne che accettano di avere una gravidanza da ovociti provenienti da altre donne hanno un rischio maggiore di preeclampsia e ipertensione.

I bambini nati mediante tecniche di procreazione medicalmente assistita, generalmente applicate nel caso di maternità surrogata, presentano anch’essi rischi di malattie, tra cui: una nascita precoce, morte al momento del parto, basso peso alla nascita, possibili malformazione alla nascita e pressione alta. La maternità surrogata rompe il legame materno naturale che si sviluppa durante la gravidanza - una relazione che invece i medici professionisti incoraggiano e cercano di rafforzare con decisione. Il legame biologico tra madre e figlio appartiene innegabilmente alla natura, e, quando è rotto, comporta conseguenze ineliminabili per entrambe le parti. Nei paesi in cui la maternità surrogata è consentita, questa sofferenza potenziale viene istituzionalizzata.

Siamo quindi convinti che non vi è alcuna differenza tra la pratica commerciale della maternità surrogata e la vendita e l'acquisto dei bambini. Anche se non ci fosse scambio di denaro (vale a dire nel caso della versione gratuita della maternità surrogata, detta "altruistica"), una prassi che espone le donne e i bambini a tali rischi deve essere vietata.

Nessuno ha il diritto di avere un bambino, né gli eterosessuali, né gli omosessuali, né le persone che hanno scelto di rimanere single.

Siamo uniti per chiedere ai governi delle nazioni del mondo e ai leader della comunità internazionale di lavorare insieme per l'immediato arresto della maternità surrogata.

- See more at: http://www.stopsurrogacynow.com/the-statement/statement-french/#sthash.MWEZSYZN.dpuf

VERSIONE UFFICIALE FRANCESE

DÉCLARATION : CAMPAGNE VISANT À L’ARRÊT IMMÉDIAT DE LA GESTATION POUR AUTRUI

Nous sommes des femmes et des hommes d’origines ethniques, religieuses, culturelles, socio-économiques différentes venant de toutes les régions du monde. Ensemble nous tenons ici à exprimer notre inquiétude concernant les femmes et les enfants exploités au travers des conventions de gestation pour autrui (GPA).

Tous, nous reconnaissons la force du désir de parentalité qui est naturel et universel. Toutefois, comme s’agissant de la plupart des désirs, des limites doivent être posées. Les Droits Humains nous fournissent un marqueur significatif à qui veut savoir identifier ces limites et déterminer leur champ d’application. Nous pensons que la gestation pour autrui doit être interdite en ce qu’elle constitue une violation des droits humains des femmes et des enfants.

La gestation pour autrui repose souvent sur l’exploitation des femmes les plus démunies. Dans de nombreux cas, ce sont les pauvres qui sont contraints de vendre et les riches qui peuvent se permettre d’acheter. Ces transactions iniques impliquent un consentement de la part de femmes sous informées, voire pas du tout informées, une rémunération faible, une coercition, une insuffisance de suivi médical et des risques sévères pour la santé, à court et à long terme, des femmes qui acceptent la gestation pour autrui.

Le processus médical de la gestation pour autrui entraîne des risques pour la mère de substitution, pour les jeunes femmes qui vendent leurs ovocytes et pour les enfants nés grâce aux techniques d’assistance médicale à la procréation. Parmi les risques encourus par les femmes : le Syndrome d’Hyper Stimulation Ovarienne (SHSO), la torsion ovarienne, le kyste ovarien, une douleur pelvienne chronique, une ménopause précoce, une perte de fertilité, une tumeur cancéreuse du système reproductif, des caillots sanguins, une insuffisance rénale, un arrêt cardiaque et, dans un certain nombre de cas, la mort. Les femmes faisant une grossesse à partir d’ovocytes provenant d’autres femmes présentent un risque plus élevé de pré-éclampsie et d’hypertension.

Les enfants nés grâce aux techniques d’assistance médicale à la procréation, qui sont généralement mises en œuvre dans la gestation pour autrui, présentent également des risques de pathologies parmi lesquelles : une naissance avant terme, un décès à la naissance, un poids insuffisant à la naissance, des malformations du fœtus et une pression artérielle élevée. La gestation pour autrui rompt le lien maternel naturel qui s’établit pendant la grossesse – un lien que les professionnels de la médecine encouragent et cherchent à renforcer sans relâche. Le lien biologique entre la mère et l’enfant est indéniablement de nature intime, et lorsqu’il est rompu, les conséquences en sont durables pour les deux parties. Dans les pays où la gestation pour autrui est autorisée, cette souffrance potentielle est institutionnalisée.

Nous sommes donc convaincus qu’il n’y a pas de différence entre la pratique commerciale de la gestation pour autrui et la vente ainsi que l’achat d’enfants. Même s’il n’y a pas échange d’argent (c’est-à-dire la version non rémunérée, ou « altruiste »), toute pratique qui expose des femmes et des enfants à de tels risques doit être interdite.

Personne n’a droit à un enfant, pas plus les hétérosexuels que les homosexuels ou les individus ayant fait le choix de rester célibataire.

Nous sommes unis pour demander aux gouvernements des nations du monde ainsi qu’aux leaders de la communauté internationale de travailler ensemble à l’arrêt immédiat de la gestation pour autrui.

- See more at: http://www.stopsurrogacynow.com/the-statement/statement-french/#sthash.MWEZSYZN.dpuf

VERSIONE UFFICIALE INGLESE

Stop Surrogacy Now Statement

We are women and men of diverse ethnic, religious, cultural, and socio-economic backgrounds from all regions of the world. We come together to voice our shared concern for women and children who are exploited through surrogacy contract pregnancy arrangements.

Together we affirm the deep longing that many have to be parents. Yet, as with most desires, there must be limits. Human rights provide an important marker for identifying what those limits should be. We believe that surrogacy should be stopped because it is an abuse of women’s and children’s human rights.

Surrogacy often depends on the exploitation of poorer women. In many cases, it is the poor who have to sell and the rich who can afford to buy. These unequal transactions result in consent that is under informed if not uninformed, low payment, coercion, poor health care, and severe risks to the short- and long-term health of women who carry surrogate pregnancies.

The medical process for surrogacy entails risks for the surrogate mother, the young women who sell their eggs, and the children born via the assisted reproductive technologies employed. The risks to women include Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS), ovarian torsion, ovarian cysts, chronic pelvic pain, premature menopause, loss of fertility, reproductive cancers, blood clots, kidney disease, stroke, and, in some cases, death. Women who become pregnant with eggs from another woman are at higher risk for pre-eclampsia and high blood pressure.

Children born of assisted reproductive technologies, which are usually employed in surrogacy, also face known health risks that include: preterm birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, fetal anomalies, and higher blood pressure. A surrogate pregnancy intentionally severs the natural maternal bonding that takes places in pregnancy—a bond that medical professionals consistently encourage and promote. The biological link between mother and child is undeniably intimate, and when severed has lasting repercussions felt by both. In places where surrogacy is legalized, this potential harm is institutionalized.

We believe that the practice of commercial surrogacy is indistinguishable from the buying and selling of children. Even when non-commercial (that is, unpaid or “altruistic”), any practice that subjects women and children to such risks must be banned.

No one has a right to a child, whether they are heterosexual, homosexual, or single-by-choice.

We stand together asking national governments of the world and leaders of the international community to work together to end this practice and Stop Surrogacy Now.

- See more at: http://www.stopsurrogacynow.com/the-statement/#sthash.geTOuveM.dpuf

Primi firmatari del manifesto

Kathleen   Sloan
  Feminist leader, activist, and author
  USA

 

Phyllis   Chesler, Ph.D.
  Emerita Professor of Psychology, Feminist activist, Scholar and Author of Sacred Bond: The Legacy of Baby M
  USA

 

Marjorie   Murphey Campbell, J.D.
  Founder of NewFeminism.co
  USA

Renate   Klein, Ph.D.
  Biologist, social scientist, and coordinator FINRRAGE (Feminist International   Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering)
  Australia

 

Ruchira   Gupta
  Founder and President, Apne Aap Women Worldwide
  India

 

Jennifer   Lahl
  Founder and President of the Center for Bioethics and Culture Network
  USA

Janice G.   Raymond, Ph.D.
  Professor Emerita University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and author of Women   as Wombs: Reproductive Technologies and the Battle Over Women’s Freedom
  USA

 

Kajsa Ekis   Ekman
  author of Being and Being Bought:   Prostitution, Surrogacy and the Split Self
  Sweden

 

Jessica   Kern
  Product of a surrogate pregnancy
  USA

Sylviane   Agacinski
  Feminist philosopher, author of Corps en   Miettes
  France

 

Gail Robinson
  “Surrogate” Mother
  USA

 

Michel   Onfray
  Philosopher and Writer
  France

Farida   Akhter
  Women’s rights and health activist
  Bangladesh

 

Tanya Lynn
  Surrogate mother
  USA

 

Gary Powell
  LGBT activist and public administration campaigner
  United Kingdom

Elisa Anne Gomez
  Surrogate mother
  USA

 

Donna   Hughes
  Eleanor M. and Oscar M. Endowed Chair in Women’s Studies, University of Rhode   Island
  USA

 

Helen   Alvare, J.D.
  Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law
  USA

Gaëlle   Cariati
  Graduate student in International Relations from University of Calabria
  Italy

 

Julie   Bindel,
  Writer, author, broadcaster, and feminist campaigner against violence against   women and children
  United Kingdom

 

Deborah   Hornstra
  M.A. Health Advocacy, Sarah Lawrence College
  USA

Gertrud   Åström
  Gender equality expert, feminist activist, president of the Swedish Women’s   Lobby
  Sweden

 

Lord David   Alton
  Member of British Parliament
  United Kingdom

 

Matthew   Eppinette
  Executive Director, The Center for Bioethics and Culture
  USA

Robert   Oscar Lopez, Ph.D.
  President of the International Children’s Rights Institute
  USA

 

Alana   Newman
  Founder of The Anonymous Us Project and Advocate for Donor-Conceived People
  USA

 

Charles C.   Camosy, Ph.D.
  Associate professor of theological and social ethics, Fordham University
  USA

Christopher   White
  Director of Research and Education, The Center for Bioethics and Culture
  USA

 

C. Ben   Mitchell, Ph.D.
  Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Graves Professor of Moral   Philosophy, Union University
  USA

 

Evan Grae   Davis
  Filmmaker and director of It’s a   Girl
  USA

Katy Doran
  Donor Conceived Activist
  USA

 

Matt Doran
  Founder of the free social network: www.DonorChildren.com
  Donor Conceived Advocate Connecting Biological Family and the Community
  USA

 

Claudia   Corrigan D’Arcy
  Board Member of Adoption Rights Coalition
  USA

Jeffrey M.   Togman, Ph.D.
  Associate Professor of Political Science and Film at Seton Hall University
  Director of the film We’re Not   Blood
  USA

 

Cathi   Swett, J.D.
  Attorney and Adult Adoptee Advocate
  USA

 

Mirah Riben
  Author of The Stork Market: America’s   Multi-Billion Dollar Unregulated Adoption Industry
  USA

Miriam   Grossman, M.D.
  Adolescent and adult psychiatrist and women’s health activist. Author Unprotected   and You’re Teaching My Child WHAT?
  USA

 

Melinda   Tankard Reist
  Writer, feminist, activist
  Australia

 

Nkechi   Asogwa, M.D.
  President,
  Doctors Health Initiative
  Nigeria

Adesuwa   Onyenokwe
  Publisher and Editor in chief
  of TW Magazine
  Nigeria

 

Ego Egonu,   M.D.
  Physician, Derry Clinics
  Nigeria

 

Sanjay Khanna
  Convener, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
  India

Babita Khanna
  Gen. Secretary, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
  India

 

Lalit   Pasricha
  Project Coordinator, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
  Canada

 

Eliette   Abécassis
  Writer, author of Qumran and   La Répudiée, which inspired Amos Gitai’s film Kadosh
  France

Johanna Langhorst
  Reporter
  Sweden

 

Eberechukwu   Okey-Onyema
  Executive Director, Healthy Living and Women Empowerment Initiative
  Nigeria

 

Annika   Lundegårdh, R.N.
  Nurse and President of the Women’s Committee of the Centre Party in Uppsala
  Sweden

Nina Björk
  Author
  Sweden

 

Ebon Kram
  Chairman
  Sweden

 

Erika   Beckman
  Chairman, National Organization Against Sexual Abuse
  Sweden

Jane   Eriksson
  Vice-Chairman, National Organization Against Sexual Abuse
  Sweden

 

Maria   Hagberg
  M.A. in Social Work, Lund University and International Women’s Rights   Activist
  Sweden

 

Yvonne   Hirdman
  Professor of Women’s History at the Gothenburg University
  Sweden

Karin   Svensson
  Chairwoman, Roks, The National Organization for Women´s Shelter and Young   Women’s Shelter
  Sweden

 

Ebba   Witt-Brattstrom
  Author, Feminist, and Professor in Nordic Literature, University of Helsinki
  Finland

 

Nina Rose,   M.D.
  Vice President, Swedish Women Doctor’s Society
  Sweden

Caroline   Norma, Ph.D.
  Lecturer in Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University
  Australia

 

Jorunn   Friis Reset
  Organisational secretary, Women’s Front
  Norway

   

Helen   Pringle, Ph.D.
  Senior Lecturer in the School of Social Sciences, University of New South   Wales
  Australia

 

Seyran   Duran
  Chairman of the Kurdistan Women’s Association in Sweden
  Sweden

 

Ruth   Nordström
  President of Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers
  Sweden

Rebecca   Ahlstrand
  Attorney, Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers
  Sweden

 

Maria Mies,   Ph.D.
  Founding member of FINRRAGE (Feminist International Network of Resistance to   Reproductive and Genetic Engineering)
  Germany

 

Shagufta   Omar
  President, Pakistan Chapter of the International Muslim Women Union
  General Secretary, Women’s Aid Trust
  Pakistan

Mia Fahlén,   M.D.
  Senior Consultant Surgeon
  Sweden

 

Ana Reis,   M.D.
  Feminist physician, former representative of FINRRAGE
  Brazil

 

Viviane Teitelbaum
  President, European Women’s Lobby
  Belgium

Myfanwy   Cummerford
  Donor conceived advocate and Founder of TangledWebs
  Australia

 

Isla   MacGregor
  Tasmanian Public Interest Advocate, Whistleblowers Tasmania
  Australia

 

Simone   Andrea
  Survivor of Prostitution, Director of NorMAC
  Australia

Martine   Segalen
  Professor Emeritus in Ethnology, Université Paris Ouest
  France

 

Genevieve   Couraud
  President of the Observatoire Droits des Femmes CG-13
  President of ECVF, Politicians Against Violence Against Women
  France

 

Yvette   Roudy
  Former Minister for Women’s Rights
  France

Irene Tabellion
  President, La Lune, L’Association Strasbourgeoise de Femmes Homosexuelles
  France

 

Marie-Josèphe   Bonnet, Ph.D.
  Historian of Women, Arts, and the Second World War
  France

 

Anne-Yvonne Le Dain
  Deputy, Socialist Party
  France

Elfriede   Hammerl
  Journalist and Writer
  Austria

 

Nora   Tenenbaum
  Representative, Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and   Contraception
  France

 

Maya   Surduts
  Representative Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and   Contraception
  France

Nnenna   Chikezie
  Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development
  Nigeria

 

Alice   Schwarzer
  Editor of EMMA and co-founder of Mouvement de Liberation des Femmes (MLF)
  Germany

 

Nathalie   Heinich
  Sociologist and Research director at Le Centre National de la Recherche   Scientifique (CNRS)
  France

Monette   Vacquin
  Psychoanalyst and author of Frankenstein   et les Délires de la Raison and Main Basse sur les Vivants
  France

 

José Bové
  Member of the European Parliament (Green Group), Former Chairman of   Confederation Paysanne / Via Campesina, and Founding member of ATTAC France
  France

 

Emma Sahlén   Grip
  Press Officer, National Organization for Women’s and Girls Shelters in   Sweden, Roks
  Sweden

Arun Dohle
  Executive Director of Against Child Trafficking
  Germany

 

Roelie Post
  Author of Romania for Export Only: the   Untold Story of the Romanian Orphans
  The Netherlands

 

Anjali   Pawar
  Director, Sakhee Pune
  India

Gita   Ramaswamy
  Concerned activist for child rights
  India

 

Jin   Vilsgaard
  Contact person for ACT
  Denmark

 

Kat Pinder
  Sex trade survivor activist and Member, Amnesty International against pimps   and buyers
  Australia

Martine   Billard
  Deputy of Paris 2002-2012, secretary of the delegation for women’s rights of   the National Assembly 2007-2012, author of a proposition of law against   violence against women in 2007 with Marie-George Buffet
  France

 

Gloria   Casas Vila
  Spanish/Swiss activist against prostitution and surrogacy

 

Etienne Dujardin
  Lawyer
  Belgium

Sophie   Heine, Ph.D.
  Senior Research Fellow at Egmont, Royal Institute for International Relations
  Belgium

 

Josina   Kamerling
  Head of Regulatory Outreach
  Belgium

 

Michel   Ghins
  Action for family, President
  Belgium

Xavier   Lombard
  Companies founder
  Belgium

 

Bernard   Michelet
  Companies administrator
  Belgium

 

Tara Hewitt
  LGBT Activist
  United Kingdom

Prime organizzazioni firmatarie del manifesto

Original Organizational Signatories:

Swedish National Committee for UN Women
Sweden

Swedish Women Doctor’s Society
Sweden

Roks, The National Organization for Women’s Shelter and Young Women´s Shelter
Sweden

Swedish Women’s Lobby
Sweden

Kurdistan Women’s Association in Sweden
Sweden

Women’s Organisation’s Committee on Alcohol and Drug Issues
Sweden

European Women’s Lobby
Belgium

LeCorp
France

La Lune, L’Association Strasbourgeoise de Femmes Homosexuelles
France

Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and Contraception
France

EMMA
Germany

Against Child Trafficking (ACT)
The Netherlands

Sakhee Pune
India

The Center for Bioethics and Culture
USA

FINRRAGE
Australia

Women’s Bioethics Alliance
Australia

Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers
Norway

- See more at: http://www.stopsurrogacynow.com/the-statement/#sthash.geTOuveM.dpuf